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Dependency Injection

We generally code with maintainability and scalability in mind, applying project-specific patterns to a given function and improving the structure of our code. We must pay attention to our code, otherwise it can become a hidden problem. Let's look at a practical example:

class Client {
void sendEmail(String email, String title, String body){
final xpto = XPTOEmail();
xpto.sendEmail(email, title, body);

Here we have a Client class with a method called sendEmail() running the send routine on XPTOEmail class instance. Despite being a simple and functional approach, having a class instance within the method, it presents some problems:

  • Makes it impossible to replace the instance xpto.
  • Makes Unit Tests more difficult, as you would not be able to create XPTOEmail() Fake/Mock instance.
  • Entirely dependent on the functioning of an external class.

We call it "Dependency Coupling" when we use an outer class in this way, because the Client class is totally dependent on the functioning of the XPTOEmail object.

To break a class's bond with its dependency, we generally prefer to "inject" the dependency instances through a constructor, setters, or methods. That's what we call "Dependency Injection".

Let's fix the Customer class by injecting the XPTOEmail instance by constructor:

class Client {

final XPTOEmail xpto;

void sendEmail(String email, String title, String body){
xpto.sendEmail(email, title, body);

This way, we reduce the coupling XPTOEmail object has to the Client object.

We still have a problem with this implementation. Despite cohesion, the Client class has a dependency on an external source, and even being injected by constructor, replacing it with another email service would not be a simple task. Our code still has coupling, but we can improve this using interfaces. Let's create an interface to define a signature, or "contract" for the sendEmail method. With this in place, any class that implements this interface can be injected into the class Client:

abstract class EmailService {
void sendEmail(String email, String title, String body);

class XPTOEmailService implements EmailService {

final XPTOEmail xpto;

void sendEmail(String email, String title, String body) {
xpto.sendEmail(email, title, body);

So we can create implementations of any email services. Finally, let's replace the dependency on XPTOEmail by the EmailService interface:

class Client {

final EmailService service;

void sendEmail(String email, String title, String body){
service.sendEmail(email, title, body);

Then We create the Client instance:

final xpto = XPTOEmail();
final service = XPTOEmailService(xpto)

// instance
final client = Client(service);

This object creation method solves coupling issues but may increase instance creation complexity, as we can see in the Client class. The flutter_modular Dependency Injection System solves this problem simply and effectively.

Instance registration

The strategy for building an instance with its dependencies comprise register all objects in a module and manufactures them on demand or in single-instance form(singleton). All instance registration process is managed by auto_injector

There are a few ways to build a Bind to register object instances:

  • injector.add: Build an instance on demand (Factory).
  • injector.addSingleton: Build an instance only once when the module starts.
  • injector.addLazySingleton: Build an instance only once when prompted.
  • injector.addInstance: Adds an existing instance.

We register the binds in AppModule:

class AppModule extends Module {

void binds(i) {

// Register with Key
i.addSingleton(, key: 'OtherClient');


The dependencies of these instances will be resolved automatically using the auto_injector mechanisms.

To get a resolved instance use Modular.get:

final client = Modular.get<Client>();

// or set a default value
final client = Modular.get<Client>(defaultValue: Client());

// or use tryGet
Client? client = Modular.tryGet<Client>();

// or get with key
Client client = Modular.get(key: 'OtherCLient');

Auto Dispose

The lifetime of a Bind singleton ends when its module 'dies'. But there are some objects that, by default, run an instance destruction routine and are automatically removed from memory. Here they are:

  • Stream/Sink (Dart Native).
  • ChangeNotifier/ValueNotifier (Flutter Native).

For registered objects that are not part of this list, we can use BindConfig or implement a Disposable interface on the instance where we want to run an algorithm before dispose:

Using BindConfig:

The dispose of an instance can be set directly in Register by implementing the onDispose property:

void binds(i) {
i.addSingleton<MyBloc>(, config: BindConfig(
onDispose: (bloc) => bloc.close(),

Using Disposable interface

Doing this does not require BindConfig, but creates a link between the package and the class.

class MyController implements Disposable {
final controller = StreamController();

void dispose() {

flutter_modular also offers a singleton removal option from the dependency injection system by calling the Modular.dispose() method even with an active module: